They are two separate things, with no link between them.
Resolution is a field on issues. Status looks a bit like a field, but is a label for "position in workflow". There's nothing that technically ties them together.
What you actually need to do is check/amend your workflow. Each movement from one status to another is a "transition". You can add three important things to these to handle resolution
1. You can use a *post function* to CLEAR the resolution
2. You can use a *post function* to SET the resolution
3. You can use a *screen* on the transition - if you put the resolution on that screen, then the user using the transition will be shown the resolution and can set it there.
In other words, you don't associate resolution and status, you look at how status changes and then set the resolution as part of the change.
I suspect there's more depth to your question though, so I expect more questions...
You would do it throug the workflow, set a post function to update a field value. When you activate a transition from state A to state B, you set the resolution
You need to give a bit more information than that. (Off the top of my head - you need to be a system administrator and you can't edit active workflows - look for "create draft" and you'll be able to edit and publish there)
If you're not an admin, then tough, you'll need to talk to your admins to get your workflow changed.
You're not adding properties on a state, you need to add a postfunction to a transition between states that populates the resolution field. See answer above for link with example. If you're looking for resolution to automatically take on a value because it's in a state, it doesn't work like that. Also be aware that when you put a value in the resolution field, Jira will consider it "Resolved" and it will not appear in "Unresolved" reports
Look for the post-function called "Update issue field". It will ask you to choose one of the system fields (assignee, reporter, resolution etc) and then ask you for an appropriate value to set. When you choose resolution as the field, you should get the full list, as well as "none" which will be shown as "clear resolution" when you save the post-function
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