I have this same problem. I am absolutely the owner and creator of the filter. There are no other accounts. The filter has no permissions on it to anyone. The pop up says that the filter is owned by me and I am logged in as me. I can make changes to the filter and do a save as but I still can't delete or rename the filter. There seems to be a bug.
welcome to the Atlassian Community!
Does this only happen for a specific filter or are they several filters affected? Could you please also state if you are using Jira Cloud or Jira Server?
From Marketplace there are several Apps available which can do some kind of integrity check. I am not sure though if any of it addresses filters - but this is something you can easily find out from descriptions in marketplace listings of the vendors.
In some related threads here in Community the reason seems to have been a filter with identical names or an user account with the same name - which I understood that it does not apply in your case.
Please keep us posted what you have found out.