Component specific backup doesn't exist in JIRA. The best you can do is to search for all issues of a specific component and take a CSV export.
Project export is an open feature request - https://jira.atlassian.com/browse/JRASERVER-34307
For JIRA Backup , please read this doc -https://confluence.atlassian.com/adminjiraserver071/backing-up-data-802592964.html
...PermissionsStartOnly=true User=www-data Group=www-data ExecStart=/opt/jira/bin/startup.sh ExecStop=/opt/jira/bin/shutdown.sh TimeoutStartSec=120 TimeoutStopSec=600 PrivateTmp=true [Install] WantedBy...
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