Request forms in JIRA Service Desk are set up as Request Types. Go to the project settings of your Service Desk project and select Request Types. Over there, you can associate a new Request Type with an underlying issue type, select an icon, title and description for your form, configure fields and so on.
For more info on how to do the configuration, see the documentation over here.
I recommend you to try our app Extension for Jira Service Desk Cloud which includes a lot of useful features. Main feature is Dynamic Forms which allows you to define which fields will appear after previous selection. You can also display more information on the Request Detail View. Documentation for this app you can find here.
The fields you are adding will be JIRA fields. They will be added just as they are configured in JIRA. For you specific example, if you add the Priority field from JIRA to your form, it will be populated with the options you already have available in JIRA.
If you need other fields, you can select or configure them from/as custom fields in JIRA (as a select list with the options you want), share them with your service desk project through field configuration and screen schemes and you will be able to add them to your request forms.
If you need more control over form behaviour then you could try our add-on: https://marketplace.atlassian.com/plugins/com.jirassimo.addons.intakeforms/cloud/overview
It supports dynamic hiding/showing of fields, custom look-n-feel and doesn't require any programming.
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