JIRA components are sub-sections of a project. They are used to group issues within a project into smaller parts. I would take a look at Managing components and Defining a Component for more information. The Stackoverflow post titled What is the difference between OSGi Components and Services provides this explanation in regards to OSGI Components:
A "component" tends to be an object whose lifecycle is managed, usually by a component framework such as Declarative Services (DS), Blueprint or iPOJO. See this page on the OSGi Community Wiki for a discussion of the different component frameworks available.
A component may have any of the following features, in combination or alone:
Hopefully that provides a bit more clarity.
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