You can refer to Atlassian kb article on retrieving private filters on Jira database. I don't know if there a way to get this using JQL query. There is a suggestion under consideration to allow administrators to manage private filters.
Connect with like-minded Atlassian users at free events near you!Find an event
Connect with like-minded Atlassian users at free events near you!
Unfortunately there are no Community Events near you at the moment.Host an event
You're one step closer to meeting fellow Atlassian users at your local event. Learn more about Community Events