When JIRA fails to startup like this, there should always be an error in the JIRAHOME/log/atlassian-jira.log and/or the JIRAINSTALL/logs/catalina.out that should be able to tell us more information about why this startup failed.
If you have no such logs, or these do not update when JIRA is called to start, then I would be concerned that perhaps the user account trying to start JIRA does not have the read/write access on the filesystem in order to create even the logs, much less the other permissions needed to start and load JIRA.
How to fix JIRA Directories permission in Linux explains how you can check the file system permissions to make sure this part is working.
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