Jira's default issue types were defined and built in when Jira was first written and people were mostly using it as a simple issue tracker. The default list is kept short because presenting someone with all one hundred and eleventy twelve issue types you might want to use is confusing. There's plenty of Jira uses that don't have Spikes or Defects, so why would you land them on people who don't need them? Far better to start with a short list of very obvious ones, and have people add when they need other types.
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