At this time, there is very limited customization available for the JIRA Core boards (actually none really). You can't show more fields on the cards themselves on the board.
The only way to see priorities / labels, etc. are to open the card themselves, and click "Show More Details" on the right hand side. https://confluence.atlassian.com/jiracorecloud/working-with-boards-800712866.html
Think of the boards built into the JIRA Core Projects as "Trello" boards...i.e. less customization. If you want full customization on your cards / boards, and the ability to easily move tasks between workflow steps, I recommend creating a Kanban project in JIRA Software.
Hope this helps!
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