Natively, Jira can't do this by itself. The labels field does not permit the searching with wildcards, or the use of the ~ contains operator. There is an existing feature request to add this functionality to Jira in https://jira.atlassian.com/browse/JRASERVER-23038
But this request is common enough that other plugins to Jira have been created that can actually handle this. I know that Scriptrunner can do this with the issueFunction in issueFieldMatch search. The specifics of how this could be done are also explained over in the post How to search for labels with a wildcard? - Atlassian Community
There are also other plugins that might help, such as
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