Workflows are tied to issue types (in each project), so you cannot directly enable a specific workflow for a component.
You could go into your existing workflow and add certain statuses/transitions with Workflow conditions based on component. Depending on how different your workflows are, this could get pretty complex and difficult to manage. If it's something simple (like X component skips QA), this could be an option.
I'd likely recommend adding another issue type to represent this component's work, if it really does follow an entirely separate workflow.
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