None, but lots. Either way it doesn't matter.
When you install JIRA, you get a core JIRA. A lot of what we tend to call core JIRA is actually written as plugins. So you could technically say that core JIRA is "JIRA + a big bucket of plugins". But. These off-the-shelf plugins are so core to the system, you rarely need to touch them. Sometimes if you're looking to turn a function off for some reason, you may turn off a module within one of them, but that's about it.
So, although you could say "you get loads of plugins with JIRA", you actually don't care about them because they're really the core product. As far as you're concerned, it comes with NO plugins, and if you want any, you should start in the marketplace.
For Cloud, there are a handful of 3rd party ones installed automatically, and more available in your My.Atlassian account.
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