Yeah... I had to ask to find the answer for myself. Resolution is shown on the issue view. Not sure why there is no such on the issue layout, but it's not a problem. The problem I really faced is that my "resolution transition" forces that value to "Done" instead of value specified by user.
I'm not sure how to delete this post now.
I am a little confused by this thread. I have the exact same problem you described initially: Resolution field does not appear on the Issue layout view. I tried Editing the workflow as mentioned but encountered that the workflow I am using is the default and has a message that reads "This workflow is managed internally by Jira Software. Do not manually modify this workflow." and I could not figure out a way to create my own so that I could edit it.
How were you able to make "Resolution" field show up on issue layout?
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