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Unable to render {include} The included page could not be found. Edited

Unable to render {include} The included page could not be found.


In our service desk portal, we want to show our knowledge base to our customers however when a customer wants to view a page, this error keeps appearing? We are using an "Include Page" from another confluence space.

I cannot seem to find an error with permissions on confluence or the global permissions, but I am happy for someone to prove me wrong. That being said, I still believe it has got to do with the permissions on the confluence space, which has the initial content that is being included from however I do not know how to change this? I have been on the permissions settings for this space and can't seem to find the issue.

We also have the customers as users in our service desk for raising tickets etc.

I would really appreciate any help on this.

ThanksGlobal Permissions.pngScreenshot 2020-12-01 102835.pngScreenshot 2020-12-01 102932.png

1 answer

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Answer accepted

There is a bit of a counter-intuitive and broken (but logically correct) behaviour here.

Imagine you have three users:

  • Alice:  Has not logged into Confluence or Jira Service Desk
  • Bob: Is a Customer and has logged into Service Desk
  • Charlie: Is a Confluence user

When people are active in your Confluence:

  • Alice: you do not know who they are, so Confluence will only let them see pages set to be visible to "anonymous"
  • Bob: you know who Bob is, and they are set up to see pages in the Knowledge bases that they have access to by virtue of being JSD customers, but not spaces outside those Knowledge bases
  • Charlie: you know who charlie is and can give them access to whatever they need in Confluence

Look closely at Bob's account - they get access to the knowledge base because they are a customer.  But, because you know who they are, they are not anonymous, so they can not see other pages in Confluence that are visible to anonymous users!

To get access to the anonymous pages, Bob can log out and become anonymous, but then they won't be able to see the knowledge base.

This is clearly broken in terms of permissions, but Atlassian don't seem to want to do anything about it.  Personally, I'd fix it by changing "anonymous" to be "everyone, irrespective of whether they are logged in or not".

But, currently, all you can do to fix this is to move the included page into the knowledge-base space.

Hi Nic,

I really appreciate your answer, thank you.

Everything you said all makes sense and I will use the suggestions provided.

I wish you all the very best.


Kind regards,


If it helps, I've found that you can add the included page's space as a linked space under Project settings > Knowledge base. This grants the same limited view permissions and means the include macro works. It's not perfect (if there's content in that space that Bob shouldn't be able to see, for example) but it's fixed it up for our use case.

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