Indeed, you would use the linked issues functionality to do that and most likely use a dedicated relationship type to mark what the link means.
What is missing out of the box tho is automations to work through the process when you link them together.
e.g. you cannot easily block an incident until a Workaround in the problem is found.
You might need to work also with the Pending status (Pending Problem for example) to signify through the status of the Incident that it is waiting on a problem rather than having to open the Incident and check the linked issues.
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