No, Confluence doesn't offer this feature or capability. There are no add-ons that I know of that can do this on Confluence Cloud, but you may consider searching the marketplace. There IS an add-on for on-premise installations though, if you ever consider migrating off Cloud.
On Confluence Cloud you could use page permissions to restrict editing of the page, however that would effectively 'checkout' everything in the page and all the files attached to it - see https://confluence.atlassian.com/confcloud/page-restrictions-724764891.html
You would also still need to look at using a social workflow to indicate you are working on the file - e.g. add a comment to the attachment or the page.
It might be possible to create a custom add-on to make this process a bit more user friendly.
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