As Nic has mentioned, Confluence and other Altassian Applications can connect to LDAP directories including Active Directory. I'd just like to mention that it's not possible to retrieve all details from the LDAP as you might wish, such as phone number, department, etc.
Here's a Suggestion related to this, though: https://jira.atlassian.com/browse/CONF-21982
Let us know if you have any questions here.
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