The likes are stored on the table called likes.
As for pages and comments, there're stored on two different tables, content and bodycontent. The content table stores the overall info of changes, such who made it, time, version, and etc. The actual content is stored on the table bodycontent.
You can use these query to search for them:
SELECT * FROM bodycontent WHERE contentid IN (SELECT contentid FROM content WHERE contenttype = 'COMMENT');
SELECT * FROM bodycontent WHERE contentid IN (SELECT contentid FROM content WHERE contenttype = 'PAGE');
Hope this helps :)
In addition to Immanuel's answer, there's also a REST API for getting and adding Likes. See my answer here: https://answers.atlassian.com/questions/108634/is-there-a-way-to-like-a-page-or-blog-entry-from-the-json-rpc-api/116072
Depending on your situation, it might be easier for you to use this, rather than querying the database directly.
As a general rule - don't write to the database directly(unless you want to have a world of hurt - or you have the app down).
Confluence (and the other Atlassian apps) usually have some type of app cache going (and they may change the data scheme on you). Rest api usage is the safest route.
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