Hey, Confluence's content are stored in the database(HTML,pages,labels, everything) that you have chosen when you did the installation of Confluence.
However we have two ways to store attachments in our Confluence, we can set the attachments to use the filesystem or the database as you can see here: https://confluence.atlassian.com/display/DOC/Attachment+Storage+Configuration
Per default we use the filesystem, which means that the attachments will be handling by the <home-folder>.
No, Confluence's content needs be store in a real database, we cannot use Git to hold the files.
I hope this helps.
Another point to add is that Confluence keeps it over version control system of documents. We store all historical versions of a page and have an integrated utility to compare pages changes.
Please have a look at the following document on details of how to take advantage of this functionality.
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