This question is in reference to Atlassian Documentation: Disabling HTTP(S) access to Git repositories in Bitbucket Server
So how do you use HTTPS? Where is the certificate located and how do you change it? What port should I use? I replaced HTTP with HTTPS but that didn't work, even though the ports are open. There are absolutely no details on this feature.
You configure https for the whole server. The git http/https protocol uses the same certificate/ssl settings as the web page itself.
Just accessing the website via "https" wouldn't do anything if you haven't configured it. It's not specific to Atlassian products. IT staff are able to perform this function pretty ubiquitously. And for instance, you probably need to buy a certificate.
Atlassian products typically run in a Tomcat web container. Most people enable SSL on Tomcat or proxy to a webserver like Apache and terminate SSL there.
There is so many techniques you would really need to describe your system, IT situation, etc before we could properly guide you. It really sounds like you're not familiar with this concept but again SSL is a pretty "external" conversation when integrating that technology.
There are a number of ways to do this as per the answers above. In a linux install, you can't use the default ports (80 or 443 for ssl) unless the process runs as root, so I typically choose this option:
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