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Do You Know Test Automation? Succeed as Project Manager

Great week ahead! Hi guys, I am Peter from DevSamurai. Do you think you know weel enough of test automation? Today, let's learn about 3 most infamous types of AgileTest: Unit, Integration and Functional Testing. 

3 Types of Test Automation Understand to Apply.jpg

Unit Testing

Unit test is the verification of whether specific units—individual components or units of software—work correctly. This could be a single function, method, or class in an application. The main goal of unit testing is to create isolation for every part of the program and show that the isolated parts operate correctly. Consequently, this helps find and fix bugs early in the development cycle, ensuring every unit works correctly before integration with other components.

Furthermore, Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a common practice in unit testing. In TDD, developers first develop a unit test before writing the application code. Initially, the test will fail. Developers then add the required functionality until the tests pass, leading to a high-quality, consistent codebase.

→ Related content: Agile Manifesto: The Values & Principles

Steps to Execute Unit Testing

  1. Identify What Units to Test: Find out which parts of the code to test by identifying the smallest testable parts of the application, usually functions or methods.
  2. Write the Test Cases: Develop test cases for the identified units, covering different scenarios, from edge cases to regular usage.
  3. Run the Test Cases: Execute the test cases using a unit test framework or tools to compare the actual output with the expected output.
  4. Analyze Results: Review test results to identify failures. If a test fails, debug and fix the corresponding unit, then refactor and retest to ensure it functions correctly. Iterate this cycle until the code is resilient.

Benefits of Unit Testing

  • Early Detection of Bugs: Identifies problems early in the development process, making them easier and cheaper to fix.
  • Simplifies Integration: Ensures each unit works correctly, facilitating easier integration.
  • Facilitates Code Changes: Allows developers to confidently make changes, knowing that the tests will catch any issues.
  • Improves Design: Encourages writing modular and reusable code, improving the overall design of the application.
  • Provides Documentation: Offers clear examples of how the code should work and what outputs are expected.

→ Related content: The Power of Unit test & TDD

Integration Testing

Integration test verifies the interactions and interfaces between different modules or components within a system. It ensures that combined parts work together as expected, identifying issues related to data transfer, communication, and overall system integration. This type of testing is typically performed after unit testing but before full system testing. Integration testing is crucial for validating interactions between different parts of the system to ensure they work together as expected.

Integration testing is not a stage specifically classified under BDD or TDD. Rather, it is the layer below system testing, where individual units are combined and tested as a group. The major purpose of the integration testing is to confirm major design items against functional, performance, and reliability requirements.

→ Related content: Top 3 Test Automation Frameworks

Steps to Conduct Integration Testing

  1. Define the Integration Plan: Outline the strategy and scope for integrating various components, including the sequence of integration.
  2. Prepare Test Data: Create test data to validate the interactions between components.
  3. Develop Test Cases: Write detailed test cases covering different interaction scenarios, including normal and edge cases.
  4. Execute Tests: Run the integration tests according to the integration plan, systematically combining and testing components.
  5. Analyze Results: Review test outcomes to identify any integration issues. Debug and resolve any problems found.
  6. Repeat Testing: After fixing issues, re-run the integration tests to confirm that problems have been resolved and no new ones have been introduced.

Benefits of Integration Testing

  • Detects Interface Issues: Identifies problems arising from interactions between different components.
  • Improves System Reliability: Ensures integrated components function together correctly, enhancing overall system reliability.
  • Facilitates Early Issue Resolution: Helps detect and address issues early, reducing the risk of complex problems later.
  • Validates Component Interactions: Ensures data flows and interactions between components work as intended.
  • Supports Incremental Development: Allows for incremental integration and testing, making it easier to manage and verify complex systems.

Functional Testing

Functional testing validates the software system against functional requirements and specifications. It ensures that each function of the software application operates according to the required specifications. This involves testing the user interface, APIs, databases, security, client/server applications, and overall functionality.

Moreover, both Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) and Test-Driven Development (TDD) can include functional testing. However, BDD is more closely aligned with functional testing because it emphasizes user interactions and business requirements, ensuring the software meets user needs and expectations.

Steps to Conduct Functional Testing

  1. Understand Requirements: Thoroughly review functional requirements and specifications to understand what needs to be tested.
  2. Develop Test Plan: Create a detailed test plan outlining the testing strategy, scope, resources, schedule, and deliverables.
  3. Design Test Cases: Write test cases and scenarios covering all functional aspects of the application, including boundary cases and error conditions.
  4. Prepare Test Data: Generate and/or collect data to execute the test cases.
  5. Execute Test Cases: Run the test cases manually or using automated tools to validate the functionality against the requirements.
  6. Log and Track Defects: Record any defects or issues found during testing and track their resolution.
  7. Retest and Validate: After fixing defects, retest the functionality to ensure the issues have been resolved and no new ones have been introduced.

Benefits of Functional Testing

  • Ensures Requirement Compliance: Verifies that the software meets all specified functional requirements.
  • Improves User Experience: Ensures the application behaves as expected from an end-user perspective, enhancing usability and satisfaction.
  • Identifies Functional Issues Early: Detects functional defects early in the development cycle, reducing the cost and time required to fix them.
  • Comprehensive Coverage: Ensures that all features and functionalities are tested, providing thorough validation of the software.
  • Enhances Quality and Reliability: Contributes to the overall quality and reliability of the software by ensuring all functions work correctly.

Unit Testing vs. Integration Testing

Understanding the distinct roles of unit testing and integration testing is crucial for effective software validation at different stages of development. Unit testing and integration testing validate software at different levels. Unit testing focuses on individual code components in isolation, ensuring they work correctly, and is quick since it uses mock dependencies. Integration testing, on the other hand, checks how modules interact with each other, verifying their combined functionality. This testing is more complex and resource-intensive as it involves real dependencies and addresses integration issues.

Unit Testing vs. Functional Testing

Exploring the differences between unit testing and functional testing reveals their unique contributions to the software development lifecycle. Unit testing and functional testing have distinct roles in software development. Unit tests check individual code units in isolation, enabling early bug detection and frequent execution with each build. Functional testing assesses the entire application against user requirements and specifications, ensuring it performs as expected. Although more time-consuming and resource-intensive, functional testing is crucial for verifying the overall application flow and user experience, typically conducted later in the development process.

Integration Testing vs. Functional Testing

Integration testing verifies the interactions between system modules, ensuring they work together and identifying issues with data exchange and communication. It occurs after unit testing and before full system testing. In contrast, functional testing validates the software against functional requirements, focusing on user commands, input/output processing, and overall system operations. Conducted in the later development stages, functional testing replicates real-world usage to ensure the application meets user expectations. Consequently, integration testing is more technical, while functional testing is user-centric, ensuring the system’s desired functionality.


By understanding and effectively implementing these testing strategies, you can catch bugs early, streamline integration, verify functionality, and ultimately deliver high-quality software that meets user expectations. Embrace these testing methodologies to enhance your development process, improve software quality, and achieve greater efficiency and reliability in your projects.

Check out our app AgileTest on marketplace as we supports all testing methodologies!

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