I'm afraid your question is a bit unclear, when it is read in a JIRA context.
The quick answer is "yes", because the way JIRA works is to hang a lot of the configuration off the issue type. So that within one project, your issue type can determine the fields, screens, and workflows differently for each issue type. The project handles permissions and notifications, and, most importantly, the issue types available within the project.
But I'm not sure I have got to the root of your question - I'm not sure what you mean by "different issue schemas" - an issue type scheme is the thing that tells the project what issue types you can use, it would be nonsense to have that apply to an issue type.
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