No, but you can create a new sub-task ticket type:
Are you trying to change how a subtask displays on its parent issue view screen to show a different name for the issue type? If so, i don’t believe this is possible. Jira is pretty straightforward with how on-screen entities, data, and links are displayed.
There may be another solution to your issue but I have to admit that I don’t fully understand the need.
Hey @Karla Karolina Cavalcanti de Lima e Silva and @Tony_Rossiter , I came across this question when researching similar topics. I thought that would be helpful to share an add-on that does a pretty good job with customizing sub-task headers, columns and sorting. Have a look at the Issue Matrix. It is always nice to mention that you will probably find other add-ons to address this use case.
I hope that helps,
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