Not in JIRA, as JIRA isn't really for that.
But it is in JIRA Service Desk. It's not what I think you are really talking about, but JSD has "Automation" that can do this sort of thing.
There's a rule for Automation that shows as "Keep on top of SLAs" - that should enable you to set up a form of escalation. Have a look at Project Settings - Automation.
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...attest to the experience of an urgent approval that gets lost in the boss’s inbox and requires that special “Please Approve” email or text message. In an age where we have distributed teams...
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