I have found the answer to this, but I do believe that this is a bug. The attachment still existed in the Space Trash but as soon as I purged it from the Trash, it no longer showed up in the search results. Now I was expecting to find that because I was a System Admin, and therefore by default would have access to the Trash, that was why I could see it in the Search Results. I tested this by having a user that did not have access to the Trash search for the document and he was still able to see it in the search results.
Have you tried to re-index the instance? Here's the guide: https://confluence.atlassian.com/display/DOC/Content+Index+Administration
In case it doesn't work, we might need to re-index the instance from scratch as described here:
I hope it helps!
I don't think that the re-indexing will help. I have looked into the page history and found a document that was deleted on Aug 12, but still shows up in the search results. The attachment is currently in the trash. We rebuilt the index from scratch on September 6, so we have already tried this.
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