If you already have a bunch of spaces and default permissions but now you want to bring on a team member who can only access certain spaces, this is the best method I've found for achieving this in 2016:
Now you have a new user who belongs to a new group and that group gives them access to Confluence but only to the space you defined. It's still quite a few steps and you have to jump all over the admin areas but it gets the job done
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