You should not update custom field values using Database. You can use bulk change functionality in Jira UI. You can read more here
I guess there is the jira.issue.editable property for the closed status in your workflow. Change the property to jira.permission.edit.group.1 with value jira-administrators (I guess you are a Jira administrator?). Publish the workflow and you will be able to bulk change the issues.
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