You can visually split checklist into parts with "separator".
"Separator" is a checklist item which text is preceded by three dashes "---".
Nevertheless, technically it is still one checklist so, for example, you can block issue transition only when all items in all parts are completed.
More about blocking transition:
You can try Smart Checklist Jira plugin:
It provides you with exactly what you were looking for:
Hope, this information helps!
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