Inside JIRA Server, using internal or read/write external directories, no.
JIRA and System administrators have access to lots of admin stuff, including create/edit/delete users. The only other layer is people who have project admin - they can add and remove people and groups in the roles of their project, but not change the user or groups.
On Cloud, there is a role of "site admin", who can maintain users. They don't have to have any access to the applications, but they're not limited - they could easily put themselves into a group or role that gives themself full access to the applications.
Finally, if you have external directories, then many of them do give you the ability to set up users who have no application access, but can maintain other users. It's not a function in JIRA, but a function of the directory.
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