what do you mean by issue name ? The issue key ? If so, you cannot change the key.
You can change the project key pattern. This is described here: http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/JIRA/Configuring+Project+Keys
But I would not do that unless you really know what you do.
Maybe you could add an alternative custom field for your alternative issue key or issue name.
Do you mean changing for example the issue type 'Error' to 'Hello123'? If that's I believe that yes it is possible. You can go to the administration section, the issue type item and the 'translate' tab.
Here it is a documentation for that: http://confluence.atlassian.com/x/1wESCw
Or do you mean the issue title like the summary?
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