Groovy is based on Java, a good starting point is http://groovy.codehaus.org/. You can directly use the documented Java API of JIRA (see Atlassian API Reference). I think a good way to start ist to look at the examples in the Script Runner documentation and the scripts provided by Script Runner and maybe the Atlassian developer docs.
For changing the status you have to transition the issue through the workflow. You could use the built-in fast transition postfunction of Script Runner or you can do it on your own like described here. https://developer.atlassian.com/display/JIRADEV/Performing+Issue+Operations
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