You should not need to do anything to a clean Jira to get resolution to work - it comes with a pre-set list of resolutions.
Bear in mind it only gets used when you are resolving or closing an issue - have you tried that yet?
Ah, right. Have a look at the workflow to start with. The "close" transition needs to have the resolution screen added to it, then it will pop-up as you try to close issues.
Note that "simplified workflows" sometimes seem to break this - they lose the screen and don't set the resolution properly when moving into "Done", but it is safe to add the screen back into them.
Just to expand a bit on what Nic mentioned, you would have to set the transition view for the transition that closes the issue (usually either 'Resolve Issue' or 'Close Issue'). I'd recommend that you take a look into these documentations for more information :
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