If I am understanding you correctly, you are wanting to have different screens appear when specific/different transitions are selected?
If that is correct, you need to be a Jira Admin. You would then go to the workflow in the workflows section in administration. Once you find your workflow, edit it and then select the transition you want to add the screen to. Click edit in the window that comes up and select the screen you want to be displayed.
You can reference this article below for more detailed instructions from atlassian!
As @NurTest said you can call up screens in transitions, but you can't have a different screen while in a status, which I think is what you are actually asking. Except for transition screens there are only three screens, Create, which is shown at issue creation, Edit, which is shown when editing an issue, and View which contains all the fields used in your issue including fields just shown in transition screens and set in post functions behind the scenes.
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