This question is in reference to Atlassian Documentation: Organizing work with components
How can we limit access to a component's issues to only a particular user group/role? For security reasons, we need to limit members of a group to only issues raised against a certain component. How can this be achieved?
There is no sensible way to do this. If a user can edit an issue, they can put any component on it that they want. The best you could do would be to add validators to the workflows that would prevent progress if the components were "wrong".
You will probably find it easier to dump that idea completely and instead record the group(s) of the user as though they were components.
Nic is totally correct, there's no way to do this out of the box. You would have to modify JIRA. You could consider buying Adaptavist script runner, which allows you to easily customize the product – A validator would protect the data and a behavior could modify the visible options on the Component/s field.
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