Board is nothing more than a view on a set of issues. Issues on the boards are fetched from a JQL filter itself. Thus, if you go into the board configuration and see the saved filer then you can see the list of issues appearing of the Board.
If it's a scrum board and you are only interested in issues an an Sprint. Then you can use JQL like "Sprint = <value>" and this will fetch you the list of issues in that sprint.
Though by using JQL you can export data in CSV and almost all applications accept CSV data to be imported. But still if you want to go ahead with SQL only. Then here is a similar question
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