When I press an issue link, I'm directed to the issue view page.
In case there are sub tasks, they are displayed in a table at the bottom of screen.
Is it possible to add columns to the table e.g. the remainig estimate for each sub task?
Yes, assuming you are using Jira Server (self-hosted) you can customise which fields are displayed.
Here is the link to the relevant page in Atlassian's docs:
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