I'm not asking about the meaning of Kanban or Scrum, but what the difference between such projects in JIRA. They look very similar to each other except some default screens and fields. Am I missing something?
The only difference is what workflow is being used for the project and if it should setup a default scrum board or kanban board. If you select the basic project it will not setup a board for you, so you can decide later if it should be kanban, scrum or a combination of the two.
More or less, they are templates or starting places to get you going on a project's configuration. Each give you a default set of issue types and a workflow geared more towards that template, and Scrum and Kanban projects give you an initial board to work with right away.
I'd like to add to the excellent two answers above. Because (mostly) everything else is customizable, the difference is what you start out with.
Even if you have a Kanban project, you can still add a Scrum board to it and you will then get sprints added to your project, too.
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