I think, there is only one task board per project and all columns are visible for everyone in this project.
Maybe the rapid board fits your needs. There you can define a filter on your own and share this filter which whom you want. Rapid Boards are not project specific and there can be several of them for one project.
Have a look at these: https://confluence.atlassian.com/display/GH/Using+the+Rapid+Board
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