Yes you can delete the board you just created (assuming you still got the correct permissions to do so).
What do you mean by "I did not realize it brings all existing issues with it"? A JIRA Agile board allows you to display, manage and work on project issues based on a filter of your choice. No other side effects on the JIRA Project itself and the issues on it.
I have multiple projects that use variations of the same base workflow. The variations depend on the requirements of the project or issue type. The variations mostly come in the form of new statuses ...
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