Hello @Benjamin Gordon welcome to the community, in Jira core projects you have as many columns as statuses you have in your workflow. If you want more, then you must edit the workflow and that will be reflected in the board.
In Jira software, you can have more statuses than columns (or the other way around) and depending on the configuration you can add columns and statuses at the same time. In the backend you are editing your workflow as well when that happens.
I hope this helps
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