You can define whatever boards you want.
However, a Scrum board already represents a sprint. When you're in plan mode, you have a list of issues. When you start a sprint, the working view, is showing the sprint.
If you're talking about a Kanban board, then yes, you can set a board filter for "issues in sprint X", and it will mostly duplicate the working view of the Scrum board. But you'll need a new board or updated filter for each new sprint unless you get a bit more clever with JQL functions that might pull out "latest sprint"
If you're thinking of JIRA Core boards, it's much the same as a Kanban in theory, although I'm not sure you can run the JQL you'll need.
I have multiple projects that use variations of the same base workflow. The variations depend on the requirements of the project or issue type. The variations mostly come in the form of new statuses ...
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