I think you've misunderstood restrictions.
Let's say you have a space that says "Confluence users can view the space, and Group my-users can add pages". That limits the people who can add/edit pages to my-users, although all your logged-in users can see the whole space.
A restriction then, well, restricts who can do what to a page.
If you add a restriction of View to my-users, then that page can no longer be seen by confluence users.
If you add a restriction of Edit to Dave, then that page can now only be edited by Dave.
In other words, "how can I restrict everyone except users I specify" is answered by "add a restriction that names the users you specify"
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