I didn't find anything exactly to your example. However I'd suggest you to try these external plugins to customize your dashboard:
It looks a little bit like "Table Filters". You will find the description in the atlassion marketplace here: https://marketplace.atlassian.com/plugins/com.stiltsoft.confluence.plugin.tablefilter.tablefilter
and a product demo here:
To use it on the dashboard you can do this:
Hi team, I’m Avinoam, a product manager on Confluence Cloud, and today I’m really excited to let the Community know that all customers can now try out the new editing experience and see some of the ...
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